The Winans Cigar Ships

he cigar ships were designed and built by the Winans family, successful railway engineers from Baltimore, Maryland who moved into marine engineering with enthusiasm and great expenditures of their family wealth, but less success.  Their radical marine design concept included an ultra-streamlined spindle-shaped hull with minimum superstructure.

Ross Winans
1876 portrait by Frank Lathrop
Courtesy of Winans family

The Winans constructed at least four ships between 1858 and 1866.  Two of these attracted considerable public attention as well as skepticism and outright criticism from the technical establishment.  Ross Winans and his sons were, first and foremost, engineers experimenting with innovative concepts.  The innovative technology would certainly have attracted Jules Verne's attention.  He may well have seen one of the boats sailing or berthed in England.  Some of their innovations were adopted for surface ships in the twentieth century, and many of the pioneer submarines built in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century resembled them.  Later in the twentieth century, aerodynamicists rediscovered the benefits of the spindle.
The seven A-Boats built for the US Navy between 1900 and 1903 have a spindle-shaped hull as apparent in the drawing near the top of this (off-site) NavSource Online: Submarine Photo Archive page.  The photo entitled “A-boat in frame” near the bottom of this (off-site) page, The A-Boats, shows a striking similarity to the cigar boat frame construction.  In an aerodynamics paper published in 1941, German mathematician Wolfgang Haack (1902-1994) described the spindle shape, called a Sears-Haack body, as offering minimum wave drag.  The paper, Geschoßformen kleinsten Wellenwiderstandes by W. Haack, Bericht 139 der Lilienthal-Gesellschaft, analyzes drag for supersonic projectiles and aircraft fuselages.

Thomas Winans
1870 portrait by Benjamin Davis
Courtesy of Winans family

The first cigar ship called the steamer Winans in an 1859 letter116 from Thomas Winans, 16 feet in diameter and initially 180 feet long, was launched in Baltimore in 1858.  Rogers2 gives the steamer displacement as 350 tons including 200 tons of coal.  The spindle hull was built in two sections with a unique radial propeller amidships, and joined by a shroud ring over the propeller.  Power was provided on a single shaft by two railroad steam engines in each hull.  The only superstructure was a narrow deck with railings, a lookout tower atop the propeller shroud, and narrow smokestacks on each hull.  The helmsman sat in a compartment in the bow with a small, forward-looking view port.   The Winans carried on a lively public debate with the editors of Scientific American about the merits and detriments of the design10, etc.  In the end the only good thing the editors would say was that the Winans had spent only their own money on what the magazine characterized as an extravagant folly.
There were problems and the steamer was modified extensively over its life, ending up with a length of 235 feet.  There were a number of trial trips but never a real ocean voyage.  The vessel ended its years tied pier-side at the Winans shipyard on Ferry Bar in Baltimore Harbor6.  

The illustration at right is a RayDream reconstruction of the original 1858 steamer.   Click it for more illustrations and information on the steamer, and a MetaStream 3D view.

Click the graphic just above or here for a popup window with more images and detailed information about the 1858 Steamer.

The Winans made plans20,28 for a new cigar ship based on what they learned with the original steamer but the Civil War intervened.  Ross Winans, considered a Confederate sympathizer, was briefly arrested30, and John Lamb reports that a 2nd Maryland infantry company guarded the steamer to keep it from being taken to the Confederacy.  A letter33 to Scientific American lists and refutes suspicions about  Confederate use of the steamer and reports the relocation of the Winans' experiments to Europe.
Click the graphic at left or here for a popup window with details about the so-called "water tank" confiscated during the Civil War..

Wallace Shugg and The Engineer report that two new, smaller boats were built in 1865.  One, 70 feet long and nine in diameter (Walter Winans gives different dimensions - length: 84½ feet,  diameter: eight feet80), was built in St. Petersburg in an attempt to sell the Czar on the design6.  It had a small propeller on the bottom of the hull, aft.  Although impressive performance was recorded, the propeller was exposed to damage in shallow water42.  Steve McLaughlin provided information about the Russian cigar boat that indicates there was an 1861 prototype and a later boat built to Russian specifications, and there are other references to several vessels.  (Shugg's source in citation 6 may have confused two Russian prototypes.)
Click here for a popup window with what information is available about the Russian boats actually constructed.

In 2003, I had the good fortune to see some Winans family archives55-58 in the possession of Steve Walk, great-great-grandson of Thomas Winans.  These archives contain no information on the boat or boats actually built but include a detailed proposal for gunboats of several sizes.  The proposed boats were never built but are interesting in themselves.
Click the graphic at right or here for a popup window with images and detailed information about the boats described in the proposal.

The other 1865 boat, the Walter S. Winans as built in Le Havre, was about 72 feet long and nine in diameter, and displaced 33 tons.   
Material in the Maryland Historical Society Winans collection119-121 reveals that it was significantly modified in 1877.
This experimental boat had a complex system of propellers and a mechanism for driving them in various combinations42.  It made a number of trial runs and ended up at Southampton with the Ross WinansA Scientific American article41 repeats a Manchester Guardian account of yacht's channel crossing with seven passengers from Havre to Newhaven on 28 Mar 1866.  The article mentions a single submerged, three-bladed aft propeller with a diameter of four feet, ten inches.  It carried a full load of coal and was submerged to just below the centerline.  The account reads very much like a Winans press release, describing how well the boat handled in a heavy sea.  In A Hundred Years of Towage90, published in 1933, Frank Bowen records that the tug Annette crossed the Channel "to Havre to tow the Walter S. Winans from there to the West India Dock" (p.68).  It is possible that the Walter S was towed rather than making the cross-channel journey on its own, but more likely the tug accompanied it only as a precaution.
Click the graphic above or here for a popup window with early speculation on the appearance of this boat.  
In May 2009 I discovered an 1867 article in Publication industrielle des machines114,115 that included substantial new information about this boat, enabling an accurate reconstruction of its original appearance.  
Click the graphic at right or here for the still-in-work full reconstruction of the Walter S. Winans.

The Winans launched their final effort in 1866 in London.  The Ross Winans was 256 feet long with the same 16-foot diameter as their first boat and displaced about 400 tons.  It did have a nearly conventional superstructure atop the hull amidships, 130 feet long and ten feet wide, tapering to a point at each end.  Inverting the first design, it was driven by a 22-foot diameter propeller at each end.  These nine-bladed props were powered by an engine room amidships.  Click the RayDream rendering at left for more illustrations, information and a MetaStream 3D reconstruction view. 
Click the graphic just above or here for a popup window with more images and detailed information about the 1866 yacht.
According to Frank Bowen in A Hundred Years of Towage90 (p.68), the tugs Annette and Britannia "were chartered to to attend the Ross Winans" in "trials and experiments in the Lower Hope and off the mouth of the Thames."  He reports very poor performance.  The yacht also underwent trials in the Solent channel near Southampton but made no more than one or two coastal voyages, never going to sea in earnest. 

After seeing new information about the construction and outfitting of the Ross Winans in 2006, I went back to my files and began a complete, comprehensive virtual reconstruction of the final cigar boat.
Click here for a preview of my Ross Winans reconstruction work-in-progress.
There is little evidence of other Winans cigar ships, but an 1879 New Zealand newspaper100 reports a "monster cigar ship" under construction in the Clyde.  Of course this might have been only a Winans press release of intentions.

The Ross Winans and Walter S. Winans remained moored near Southampton until the end of the 19th century when they were sold for scrap1.  In 1897 the New York Times86 reported both vessels for sale after William L. Winans' death earlier in the year.  The very short piece says the yachts had been "moored in Southampton waters for twenty-five years", that  "enormous sums of money have been spent in experiments upon them, and in their maintenance, but very few people have ever seen them under way."  An 1878 photograph of more than a dozen vessels at anchor near Southampton port82 by Oxford-based professional photographer Henry William Taunt shows the Ross Winans and possibly the Walter S in a distant view.  The larger yacht is clearly recognizable, although the stacks and propellers are missing.  A smaller boat nearby, partly obscured by a vessel under sail, appears to have a tall stack and odd shape, but the view distance makes positive identification as the French-built boat impossible.
     In One Hundred Years of Towage
90 (p.74) Frank Bowen writes that the "Ross Winans was towed from the West India Dock to Havre by the [tugs] Anglia and Victoria."  That the yacht was in Southampton and not London where the South India Dock is located, undermines the authority of this statement.  It may be that this is where the tugs started out on their way to Southampton, so it may be a fact that the scrapping did take place in Le Havre.
     William Louis Winans 1893 Spindle-shaped Ocean-Steamer patent (504,120) shows he was still a strong proponent of the design near the end of the century.  Interestingly, the patent expressly excludes "torpedo boats and similar craft; and ... all submarine vessels"  the only non-Winans craft that have used true spindle hulls.  The exclusions may apply because the patent describes vessels at least 600 feet in length with a beam not less than 40 feet, or perhaps because others' patents described spindle-hull submarines and torpedo boats.

K census records provide additional information about the two boats moored at or near Southampton.  See the details here.

The historical material provides a view of the evolution of the cigar ship over the years of the Winans' efforts.  In addition to the spindle hull design, the original steamer had all metal construction, an internal ventilation system, a compartmentalized hull, rudders fore and aft, an unconventional deck with no masts, and a completely unconventional propeller system.  The proposed Russian boats replaced the strange midship propeller with more conventional propellers at one or both ends and added an enclosed "gangway" on top of the hull but maintained all the other characteristics.  The other Russian boat had one propeller aft and the French boat had two at each end.  It isn't clear if either of these had additional superstructure on the deck.  The Ross Winans retained the fore-and-aft propellers but made them more innovative by integrating them with the hull shape.  The superstructure, on the other hand, became more traditional and added masts, although these were hardly conventional.  All the designs appear to have retained the other innovations of the steamer.
     Problems with the steamer's split hull most likely account for the abandonment of the midship propeller.  The maneuverability provided by the fore-and-aft rudders probably fostered the concept of fore-and-aft propellers.  The deck patent (161372) states the purpose of the superstructure is to provide access between watertight compartments.  Unstated is that such outside access without the superstructure was inconvenient at best and probably dangerous.  The various patents provide detailed technical information and track the development of the cigar boats while extending patent rights to changes not implemented by the Winans.  For example, Patent 144233, which flattens the bottom of the hull, addresses an inherent problem of high draft of the spindle hull, permitting designs that might be used in shallower waters. 

To be complete, a discussion of the Winans marine efforts must include the odd sailboat Sokoloff, although it doesn't fit the criteria for the cigar boats.  Described in Patent 18691, the sailboat had a half-spindle iron hull and a pivoted mast-keel assembly designed to prevent capsizing59.  Steve Walk called it the "most delightfully unworkable thing I have ever seen".  Shrugg
6 and Keith4 report the 1876 launch of the sailboat but there is no report of its sailing stability.

Other pages on this site discuss connections:  Jules Verne's fictional Nautilus and the cigar boats, the Hunley, and other 19th century vessels.  So what is the cigar boat connection with Civil War vessels?  Click for a definitive answer, or maybe not.

Note:  This page continues in-work. Expect occasional updates to the text and improved reconstructions of the cigar boats based on information from the extensive new bibliography.
My research has collected extensive information about the 1858 steamer, slightly less about the London based Ross Winans, a good deal about the Walter S. Winans and the proposed Russian gun boats and, but almost nothing about the Russian experimental boat.  I've seen only a few photos of the steamer although it is clear from the various articles that a number were taken.  The steamer remained at dockside in Baltimore Harbor for at least ten years and possibly much longer.  The Ross Winans and Walter S. Winans were moored in the Southampton, England harbor for decades.  I believe all these vessels must appear in photographs taken over the years.
I am very interested in hearing about any additional photographs, articles or similar material, beyond those in the bibliography below, especially from French or Russian sources.  Please e-mail me. 

My very special thanks to the helpful folk who have responded to this request over the years and more than doubled the amount of information I now present here.

Click this link for background on my cigar ship research.

Delve further into the Winans family history on this web site.  There are several chapters about the family.  Not all of the chapters are linked on the page so scroll around to see them.  (Opens in new window.):
Vernon Stories of Jacobus Van Brug  


Comprehensive Bibliography

This bibliography lists all of the significant sources I've found.  Some information is redundant and not all sources are cited in the account on these pages.  
(I began this list with a logical arrangement that was more or less chronological, but as I found more and more sources the reference number sequencing became almost random.  To partially fix this I've reorganized the secondary and primary source sections in numerical order to make it easier to find citations.) 

You can examine many of the following source documents at their on-line locations by clicking the small icon on the right.  The link will open in a new window that you should close when you are finished.  Each link is to a particular volume - you will sometimes need to select the particular page of the citation.
(Remember that the Internet changes over time so links may become obsolete. My apologies in advance.)

Secondary sources:
Bizarre Ships of the Nineteenth Century by John Guthrie, 1970.  The "Cigar Ships" chapter contains an extensive history and description of the ships and the author's comments on their strengths and deficiencies.  It includes both major Illustrated London News engravings and several technical drawings by the author.
Freak Ships by Stanley Rogers, 1936, "Cigars and Rolling Pins" chapter.  This book includes drawings by the author that seem based on the 1858 Harper's Weekly article.  He includes information about displacement and fuel use but erroneously describes the steamer propeller as "annular" or an outside ring.  
Picture History of the U.S. Navy by Theodore Roscoe and Fred Freeman contains a rare photograph but the short paragraph reports a trans-Atlantic voyage that never took place.  See 79 below for a copy of the photograph.
Baltimore Harbor - A Picture History by Robert C. Keith. The "Experimental Ships" chapter contains a short history of the cigar ships, the Illustrated London News drawing of the steamer at sea and a three dimensional 1869 map that shows the Winan's boatyard with steamer at dockside.
"Ross Winans and his Amazing Cigar Ship" by Richard Dodds, (The Weather Gauge, Vol. XXV, No. 2, October 1989, published by the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum).  This article includes a second rare photograph of the steamer under construction. 
"The Cigar Boat: Ross Winans's Maritime Wonder" by Wallace Shugg, (Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 93, No. 4 (Winter 1998)) is the most comprehensive account I have seen.  Its numerous illustrations include a detail from the map mentioned in 4 and the photo in 5.  The extensive bibliography is invaluable.
45  "The Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich and the Epoch of the Great Reforms, 1855-1866" (Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D., 1970), pp. 234-236.   Jacob W. Kipp's doctoral dissertation contains information about William Winans' attempts to interest the Russian navy in the cigar boats.  The dissertation cites Winans' letters to his brother from the Maryland Historical Society collection and several issues of a Russian naval journal, Morskoi sbornik, listed in the primary sources below.
68  Hunters of the Night by R. Thomas Campbell, 2000.  The cigar boat references are on page 55.
69  The Siege of Charleston 1861-1865 by E. Milby Burton, 1970.  The cigar boat references are on pages 218-219.
83  John H. B. Latrobe and His Times, 1803-1891 by John Edward Semmes, 1917.  Cigar boat references in Chapter XIV.

84  British House of Commons Office for National Statistics document Consumer Price Inflation since 1750 (Economic Trends 604 March 2004)
The Shape of Ships by William McDowell, 1952, has a slightly inaccurate paragraph about the cigar ships in the "Freak Ships" section of chapter 16.  There is an amusing drawing by the author of an amalgam of the Baltimore steamer and the Ross Winans.
87  Railways, Steamers and Telegraphs by George Dodd, 1867.  Chapter II - Steamers, § XVII Novelties and Oddities in Ship-Building, includes a short section on the "Cigar Ships" with information about the interior not seen in many other sources.

89  Shipping Wonders of the World, Part 17, "Novelties in Ship Design" by Frank Bowen, 1936 
Steam-Ships, The Story of their Development to the Present Day, by R.A. Fletcher, 1910. "Miscellaneous Steam-Vessels" includes technical descriptions of the Baltimore steamer and the Ross Winans and mentions the St. Petersburg boat.

90  A Hundred Years of Towage: A History of Messrs. William Watkins, Ltd., 1833-1933 by Frank Bowen, 1933.  There are mentions of the cigar ships in England in two places in this history.
92  London and Londoners in the Eighteen-Fifties and Sixties, by Alfred Rosling Bennett, 1924 -(Chapter 38 - 1866 - King Neptune Fettered at Last p.290-291)
95  The English Life of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte: The Life of Napoleon III in the context of Anglo-French Relations, by Roman Golicz, 2007, includes in Chapter 12 the report of a private two-hour 18 Jul 1871 excursion up and down the river with Louis Napoleon on board.  (This publication is no longer available on-line)

103  History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce by W. S. Lindsay, 1876.  The cigar ships, in particular the Baltimore steamer, are discussed on pages 567-570.

107  A Cosmopolitan Actor: His Adventures All Over the World by J. Burdett Howe, 1888. On p. 98 Howe briefly relates a visit on board the Baltimore steamer at quayside.

113  Aeneidea, or Critical, exegetical, and aesthetical remarks on the Aeneis by James Henry, printed 1881, p.56.  The cigar ships do not appear only in technical or engineering reports.  In this literary volume Henry cites a May 1864 account of the "cigar-ship" in the Times to illustrate a point about a passage in the Aeneid, showing how widely known the cigar ships were.

124  "The End of the Winans Brothers' Railroad Enterprise in Russia" by Vladimir V. Noskov, New Perspectives on Russian-American Relations,  edited by William Benton Whisenhunt and Norman E. Saul 
125  Distant Friends: the United States and Russia, 1763-1867 by Norman E. Saul (1991), 225-26. [cited in 124]
126  Proletartsy: Istoriia leningradskogo ob'edeneniia "Proletarskii zavod" (Leningrad, 1977), 40, 45-77. [cited in 124]
The Art of Revolver Shooting by Walter Winans (1911) has a drawing of a cigar ship at the end of the preface (p. v).  The drawing, by the author, dated 1904, resembles the Ross Winans, but is much longer.  (The book is available on-line in the Library of Congress Internet Archive.)

Primary sources:
Harper?s Weekly 23 Oct 1858, pp. 676-678. This article includes an artist's impression of the steamer at sea, a diagram, and several engraving illustrations from photographs of the steamer construction and launch, including an end-on view of the stern.
The Illustrated London News 27 Nov 1858, p. 503. This article provided the lead illustration and includes an end-on view of the steamer bow (on the steamer page linked above) and descriptive text.
Scientific American 16 Oct 1858, p. 46.  "A Novel Steamer" - This initial mention of the steamer in the publication finds nothing novel in her design, based on her description.
10  Scientific American 23 Oct 1858, p. 53.  "New Cigar Boat" - This short article mentions the Winans steamer and introduces the editors' skepticism about the design.
11  Scientific American 6 Nov 1858, pp. 65-66.  This front page article has a different engraving of the steamer launch and reproduces the schematic drawing from the Harper's Weekly article.  After a detailed description of the boat, the editors list their many concerns.  Several Winans marine patents are recorded on p. 67.
12  Scientific American 4 Dec 1858, p. 102.  In a letter to the editors, Thomas and Ross Winans answer the criticisms one-by-one.
12a Scientific American 11 Dec 1858, pp. 109-110.  "The Winans Steamer-Our Answer" - The editors respond to the Winans' letter.
Mechanics Magazine, V. LXIX
3 Jul - 25 Dec 1858
27 Nov 1858, pp. 519-20.  An article "The Latest Steam-Ship Novelty" quotes the 6 Nov Scientific American11 and includes an engraving of the steamer based on that article.
Mechanics Magazine, V. LXIX
3 Jul - 25 Dec 1858
4 Dec 1858, p. 540.  A paragraph entitled "The American Cigar Steamship" references the November article and criticizes the steamer, offering that the central propeller wheel will drive the ship sideways rather than forward.  It considers the effect of two and than three wheels.
Mechanics Magazine, V. LXIX
3 Jul - 25 Dec 1858
18 Dec 1858, p. 594.  A letter from T. Moy offers a more detailed technical assessment than the 4 Dec article, but concludes that the steamer is an "absurdity". 
13  Scientific American 1 Jan 1859, p. 137.  "The Cigar-Shaped Steamer" - The editors cite and quote a number of views about the steamer expressed by various correspondents and other publications.
14  Scientific American 22 Jan 1859, p. 162.  The Winans correspond again, in response to the editors' comments in 11 Dec issue.
15  Scientific American 29 Jan 1859, p. 170.  "The Winans Steamer" - Two third-party writers comment on the steamer, one suggesting its potential as a warship, and the editors comment.
16  Scientific American 5 Feb 1859, p. 175. "Winans' Steamer Again" - The editors cite a Life Illustrated article.  As in many of the other citations, they mention agreement with their comments and criticism.
17  Scientific American 19 Feb 1859, p. 192.  The editors declare the steamer a failure, reporting a Baltimore Sun account of the Winans' decision to lengthen the bow. They go on to suggest other improvements they believe necessary.
The Engineer 11 Feb 1859, p. 102.  A short and somewhat negative filler piece mentions the steamer attaining a speed of twelve miles an hour.
4 Mar 1859, p. 157.  Another negative filler reports an announcement the steamer will be lengthened 36 feet.
17 Jun 1859, p. 421.  A filler mentions the achievement of 14 miles an hour but mentions further lengthening an other alterations.
18  Scientific American 2 Jul 1859, p. 4. "Winans' Steamer" - This is a very short report of a workman causing the steamer's sinking at dockside.  It is reported raised with little damage.  
19  Scientific American 13 Aug 1859, p. 104.  There is a lengthy report from the Baltimore American of a trip by the steamer down the Chesapeake Bay to Annapolis.  The editors add a question but make some laudatory comments.
20  Scientific American 3 Dec 1859, p. 376.  This article quotes a Baltimore Sun report of the Winans' plans for a new steamer based on the results of the extensive trials.
21  Scientific American 17 Dec 1859 p. 403.  There is a very short mention of the steamer's trip to Norfolk, Virginia.
22  Scientific American 24 Dec 1859, p. 412. A long article quotes a New York Herald correspondent's account of the steamer's performance in Norfolk.  The account is quite positive, especially in comparison to the the standard vessels that accompanied it.
23  Scientific American 2 Jan 1860, p. 1.  "Dark Clouds" - This article includes a brief note that Winans steamer is "greatly changed" and will be "further lengthened and otherwise altered".
24  Scientific American 7 Jan 1860, p. 23. "A Column of Varieties" includes a cryptic note, "The Winans steamer is to be lengthened [at the bow] thus removing the propeller from the center, as we advised."  Oddly, this note seems more appropriate for a year earlier.
25  Scientific American 21 Jan 1860, p. 51. A very long letter to the editors from "B." recounts the design and construction of the steamer, and details many of the trials and the changes made.  (This letter is quoted in the 10 Feb 1860 issue of The Engineer.)
26  Scientific American 28 Jan 1860, p. 73. The editors' response to "B." 
27  Scientific American 14 Jul 1860, p. 39.  "A Column of Varieties" mentions further alterations to the steamer and a successful trial. 
The Engineer 17 Feb 1860, p.110.  A rather negative and mocking article recounts the history of the steamer and lists numerous reasons why it is destined to fail.
28  Scientific American 18 Aug 1860, p. 113.  "The Cigar Steamer Again" - A short article quotes a Charleston Courier correspondent about the appearance and attributed performance of the steamer.  The cost to date is given at $200,000 and there is mention of the plans for a new boat.
29  Scientific American 1 Dec 1860, p. 363.  "The Winans Steamship" - There is a passing reference to the new steamer plans and Winans property wealth is put at $12,000,000.
30  Scientific American 1 Jun 61, p. 338. The Civil War enters the picture.  There is an account of the army occupation of Baltimore and Ross Winans arrest on 14 May as a possible Confederate sympathizer.  A quoted Baltimore American article reports that a delegation to Washington resulted in a presidential order for his release.
31  Scientific American 12 Apr 1862, p. 230. The Philadelphia Ledger is quoted in a short item, reporting a submersible shaped like the cigar steamer, planned for use against the Merrimac.
32  Scientific American 4 Oct 1862, p. 218.  "Miscellaneous Summary" - A note asks what has happened with the steamer?
33  Scientific American 29 Nov 1862, p. 342. "The Winans' Cigar Steamer" - Answering the 4 Oct question, a correspondent reports the steamer is dockside at the Winans shipyard.  The letter puts aside various suspicions about Confederate use of the steamer and states that the Winans have moved their experiments to Europe.
34  Scientific American 26 Sep 1863, p. 201. "The Cigar Steamer-Steam Rams" - This article quotes the Philadelphia Ledger stating the usefulness of rams constructed using the steamer design.  The editors take issue with the idea.
35  Harper's Weekly 23 Sep 1865, Vol. IX, Issue 456, , p. 597, 606, "The Latest Yankee Experiment". This issue contains a description of the Ross Winans and an engraving of her projected appearance at sea.
36  The Illustrated London News 3 Mar 1866, p. 204, 214.  This article includes a very nice engraving of the Ross Winans launch (included on the Ross Winans page, linked above).
37  Scientific American 9 Sep 1865, p. 168. "The Latest Yankee Experiment in Naval Architecture" - A lengthy article describes the Ross Winans putting it in the company of the Great Eastern and and other members of a "motley fleet."
38  Scientific American 3 Mar 1866, p. 150. "Segar Vessels not Perfect Yet" - The "segar vessel" in this short article must be the Walter S. Winans.
39  Scientific American 24 Mar 1866, p. 199.  "Launch of Winans's Fourth Cigar Steamer" - The editors recount the saga of the cigar boats since the 1858-59 spate of articles although the ultimate length of the steamer is a typo.  They have not relaxed their skepticism but they make an interesting comment about the viability of the cigar shape for a submarine.  
40  Scientific American 14 Apr 1866, p. 245.  "The Cigar Steamer" - A third party correspondent comments on the cigar shape and receives an answer from the editors.
41  Scientific American 5 May 1866, p. 301. "A Cigar Ship at Sea" - This account from the Manchester Guardian describes the Walter S. Winans trip across the English Channel.
42  The Engineer 23 Feb 1866, pp.135-6.  This British journal began a three article series on the Ross Winans with some background and a general overview of the yacht.
43  The Engineer 2 Mar 1866, pp.153-4.  The follow-on article describes some of the Ross Winans fittings in detail.
44  The Engineer 9 Mar 1866, pp. 171-2, 180. The last article describes the power plant and power train of the yacht.
(Click the graphic at right for facsimile copies of all three articles.)
49  The Artizan 1 Jan 1864, p. 19.  An early reference to the Ross Winans.
50  The Artizan 1 May, 1864, p.117.  Another brief reference with better data.
51  The Artizan 1 Jun 1864, pp. 121-2.  This near full page article includes a plan and elevation of the Ross Winans, corresponding in design to the Harper's Weekly engraving (see reference 35).
52  Dutton print In 1866 Thomas G. Dutton produced an 11x20" lithograph of the Ross Winans at sea.  (See it on my Ross Winans page, linked above.)
The Maryland Historical Society has a somewhat faded copy of this print in the Hambleton Collection, catalog number H170.
53  Official Records of the War of Rebellion 1861 correspondence regarding Winans "tank" (Official records of the Union and Confederate Navies, Series I, Vol. 6, pp. 346-350) 
54  Manufacture and Builder Jan 1873 article "The True Road to Progress", pp.13
55  Winans family archives Particulars of William Louis Winans' 1861 gunboat proposal to the Russian government 
56  Winans family archives A schematic drawing of the proposed 3000-ton gunboat Interpretation available here as a PDF*
57  War Vessels on the Spindle Principle, July 1861 William Louis Winans' memorandum discussing the benefits of cigar boat war vessels
58  Winans family archives A schematic drawing of the proposed 500-ton gunboat Interpretation available here as a PDF*
59  Unidentified newspaper clipping Drawing and description of "A sailboat that cannot capsize" (from the Winans family archives)
60  Sachse map of Baltimore This 1869 map (details published by Keith4 and Shrugg6) shows the steamer and the "tank" dockside at Ferry Bar.
(Available from the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division - Digital ID g3844b pm002540)
61  Maryland Historical Society Photograph of the steamer under construction at the Ferry Bar (collection item Z24.88.VF - the photo is no longer available on-line).
The Society has a very similar photo in the Baltimore City Life collection Catalog item CC279.  The photographer must have taken a series.  
[Morris+Bailey] On their now defunct Charleston Illustrated CSS Hunley page, Morris+Bailey included a photo of the steamer very similar to the Maryland Historical Society photos.

Naval History and Heritage Command "Winans' New Iron Steamer" photographed on the eve of launching, 29 September 1858, by D.A. Woodward. 
62  Maryland Historical Society Reproduction of a painting of the steamer at sea from the Alexandroffsky photo album (Z24.2578-PP127.17).
64  British census, 1881 The census records the presence of the Ross Winans and the Walter S. Winans in Southampton, England.
65  British census, 1891 The census records the presence of the Ross Winans in Dibden, England, across the bay from Southampton.
66  Burial records, 1867 Gravesend & Milton cemetery company records 1839-1876 (Vol. 43) 
(Three posts at Shipboard Deaths, Gravesend: E-I, I-R, S-Z)
67  James McNeill Whistler correspondence, 1868 Whistler mentions his expectation of taking a trip of several days on the Walter S. Winans in this 24 Jul 1868 letter to solicitor James Anderson Rose. (Center for Whistler Studies, system number 11849)
70  Letter from Susan Matilda Middleton to Harrient Middleton, 1864 This letter shows the connection between the Winans cigar boats and the Confederate Davids (South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. 65 Num. 1, January, 1964 - Middleton Correspondence, 1861-1865, p. 42)
70a   Letter from David Ebaugh to Rev W.H. Campbell, 1892 This letter relates "the history (as near as I can remember) of the building of the Torpedo Boat David" (South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. LIV Num. 1,  January, 1953 - David Ebaugh on the Building of "The David", p. 32-33)
71  Anna Matilda Whistler correspondence, 1876 In a long 19 Jul 1876 letter about her poor health, Whistler's mother mentions that her son Willie had an invitation in early June from Walter Winans "to accompany him to Ryde (The Isle of Wight) to spend a few days on board the Segar Steamer" (Walter S. Winans). (Center for Whistler Studies, system number 12635)
72  Gary Creighton collection  An undated, unsigned 72x44 cm original pen and watercolor labeled "Yacht Ross Winans" that differs substantially of other Ross Winans depictions
73   Gary Creighton collection  An undated, unsigned 90x70 cm original pen and watercolor of a large, two-masted sailboat with a cigar-shaped hull
74  Archives of the French Navy A plan entitled "Cigar ship de Wynan", dated 6 Oct 1865, shows some physical construction views of the Ross Winans hull. (Plan GM13PL0657)
To view a TIF image of the plan from the French Ministry of Defense historical services website, click the link at right. [The French site no longer exists; the link is to an Internet Archive Way Back Machine copy of the page.]
75  New York Times  27 Aug 1865 - Article quoted from the 11 Aug London Times about the imminent launch of the Ross Winans that reiterates much of the other articles mentioned here but has some additional information. 
76  New York Times  16 Apr 1866 - Article dated 31 Mar 1866 on European news reports the unannounced departure of the Ross Winans from the Thames for Brighton.
77  New York Times  31 Dec 1866 - An article dated 28 Dec reports seven crewmen of the Ross Winans including one American missing after a "small boat" from the vessel was found capsized in the Thames.
78  Victoria and Albert Museum Archives Folios 1088-1090 of the Holland & Sons Ltd ledger "Day book R-Z 1865" (AAD/1983/13/81).  These folios document the furnishings for the Ross Winans provided by the cabinet makers.
79  Naval Historical Center archives Photograph of the cigar steamer under construction.  The "Hunt for the Alligator" web site has an inferior copy of this photo.  This photo is the one published in Picture History of the U.S. Navy, citation 3, above.
80  Cassius Marcellus Clay Papers

The Abraham Lincoln Library and Museum, 26 Dec 1861 letter, W. L. Winans to Cassius M. Clay discussing the principles of design for making small shot-proof war vessels, with his illustrated drawing. (No longer online.)

81  Roddy Smith & Diana Armas collection Stereograph showing the cigar steamer at quayside in Baltimore, published by William B. Holmes of New York as part of an American Scenery, Architecture, &c. series.
82  Centre for Oxfordshire Studies Henry Taunt's 1878 Southampton photograph shows the Ross Winans at anchor among many other boats in a distant but clear view.  The Oxfordshire County Council photo, reference number HT02585, can be seen on this Historic England page.  
82a  William Gilhen Archive A c.1880s-90s photo of the Ross Winans appears near the bottom of a now defunct Plymouth Museum Galleries Archive page.  The Internet Archive graphic at right loads the image directly.  William Gilhen (1854-1923) took many informal photos in the Devon and Cornwall areas (and apparently other parts of southern England).  The biography of the page says, "In addition to being a photographer, private family records indicate he worked as a store houseman at HM Dockyard."  Oddly, the photo is labeled "Torpedo Boat (Old Fashion)" but this and the associated copyright matches it with item PD/19/80 in the Plymouth Barbican Association South West Image Bank collection.

85  Scientific American Supplement  Vol. XVI No. 415, 15 Dec 1883, mentions the new Russian torpedo boat Poti, and includes a drawing.  (Not directly related to the cigar boats, but possibly derivative.)
86  New York Times  14 Nov 1897 - A short article, dateline London, 13 Nov, reports both cigar boats in Southampton will be sold "owing to the death of William L. Winans" on 25 Jun. 
88  The Miscellaneous Writings of George Harding Julia Harding published this collection in 1882.  George Harding joined the 21st Indiana Regiment just before the Civil War and went with it to Baltimore.  His reminiscences include a first-hand account of the Baltimore steamer.  pp.202-203
91  Scientific American 13 Jul 1867.  A small article on the front page under the heading "The Amazon" includes a cryptic reference to the Ross Winans chief engineer.
92  Year-Book of Facts P. 26, The Annual of Scientific Discovery: or, Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art for 1860, published in Boston, has an entry for the Winans Steamer that describes changes since its launch and its performance on a trip down the Potomac.  There is a reference to an article in the 1859 edition.
93  Year-Book of Facts P. 37-39, The Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art 1866, published in London, has an extensive description of the Ross Winans "abridged from the Times".


Every Saturday: A Journal of Choice Reading Volume I, January to June 1866, includes a 23 June article of a tour of the Ross Winans at dockside reproduced from an unidentified European source.  The unnamed writer of this article describes exterior appearance of the ship afloat and many interior compartments, emphasizing the lack of space.  The tone is much more casual than the Engineer articles and provides additional information, from a different perspective. 
The Repertory of Patent Inventions  1853 - This British publication lists patents applied for and granted in 1852.
Patents for inventions. Abridgments of specifications  The Marine Propulsion volume of this series, published by the British Patent Office in 1858 describes a number of British patents related to that subject.
The Shipbuilding, Repairing, etc. volume, published in 1862, describes patents likewise related to this subject.
Revue Maritime et Coloniale
(Maritime and Colonial Magazine)
Tome Onzième (Volume XI), Paris 1864 - p. 379 A small section titled "Le bateau-cigare" quotes a Times article.  P. 812 begins a lengthy article quoted from The Artizan headed "Le Winan's Yacht ( bateau-cigare )".  The article includes the raked smokestack plan and elevation drawings that appear near the top of my Ross Winans popup (see reference 51).
Revue Maritime et Coloniale
(Maritime and Colonial Magazine)
Tome Quinzième, (Volume XV) Paris 1865 -  The section Les Navires cuirassés (armored vessels) has a long foot note (p.9-10) with a short description of the Ross Winans and accounts of the experience gained testing the 1858 and the St. Petersburg boats.
Revue Maritime et Coloniale
(Maritime and Colonial Magazine)
Tome Seizième (Volume XVI), Paris 1866 - p. 867  A small section headed "Mise à l'eau du navire-cigare" (Launching of the cigar vessel) includes a description of the "Rose-Winan".  It says the yacht is intended for the Imperial Yacht Club of St. Petersburg, probably because that flag was flown at the launch.
The reference to "M. Winan" has a footnote to see Volume XI, p. 812 (August 1864).
96  English Mechanic and World of Science V.29, Mar. 14-Sept. 5, 1879.  This volume, published in London, includes this cryptic May 2, 1879 text at the very end of P. 197: 'The Cigar Ship.—"G. G.," noticing a reply recently respecting the cigar ship, writes, for the information of his fellow-readers, that the vessel lies in Southampton Water, and may be seen from the Southampton West End station on the main line to Bournemouth.'

(no longer viewable)

97  New York Times  20 Apr 1866 - London Correspondence, dateline London, 7 Apr 1866, identifies the cigar ship seen in the channel as the "small one built in France".  It states that "the larger ship has not moved from her moorings".  This appears to correct the 16 Apr report.
98  New York Times  16 Mar 1867 - The European News Great Britain section, dateline London, 2 Mar 1867, reports the Ross Winans in several days of sea trials in the Channel.
99  New York Times  3 Aug 1871 - A London dispatch dated 2 Aug states "The Grand Duke Constantine, Grand Admiral of the Russian Navy, arrived at Woolwich yesterday, on board the cigar-ship, and paid a visit to the arsenal."
100  Otago Witness Issue 1442, 12 July 1879, page 20  of this Dunedin, New Zealand newspaper reports “Mr Wynans, the American millionaire, is building in the Clyde a monster cigar ship, at a cost of close upon £200,000. She is to be of 4000 or 5000 tons burthen.”
Baltimore Sun Wallace Shugg and others cite numerous Sun articles about the cigar boats.  
I've not had the opportunity to see this important source.
101  Baltimore Sun 3 Aug 1871 - This issue includes a report of a cigar ship excursion by Louis Napoleon, ex-emperor of France.
102  Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects   Vol. XVII 1876 - P. 101 In a discussion of the paper entitled "On Double and Triple Cylindrical Vessels" a Mr. Henry Liggins refers to the poor performance of "the cigar ship" off the Nore with a strong north-east wind.
104  Norwich Mercury 11 Mar 1866 - An article provides a short description of the Walter S. Winans, which "put into this harbour on Friday last".  (From Yarmouth Notes, 1830-1872: Collated from the File of the Norwich Mercury pp.319- 320)
105  Merchants Magazine and Commercial Review Volume 42, 1860 - P. 395 begins a detailed technical description of the steamer.  The performance account is written in the first person and may be from a press release.
The Engineer 13 Jan 1860, p.19.  An article citing the Baltimore Patriot describes the steamer in some detail and mentions performance during experimental runs.
Bertrand engraving 1865 - An engraving signed "Bertrand" and labeled "Londres. - Chantier de construction du Bateau-Cigarre (le Cigar-Ship), nouvelle invention américaine. (D'après le croquis de M. E. Barrère.)*" was published in a French newspaper in 1865.  A number of colored versions of the engraving appeared at about the same time.  The illustration is nicely done and probably depicts a London boatyard, but in fact the boat pictured very much resembles early drawings of the 1858 Baltimore steamer. One or more of these must have been models for the illustration.
*London. - Construction work-site of the Cigar Ship, new American invention. (After the sketch of M. E. Barrère.)
Barrère engraving 1860 - I haven't seen this engraving attributed to Barrère.  Its similar title (À Londres Le Chantier De Construction Du Bateau-Cigare, Invention Américaine) identifies it as Bertrand's probable source and the 1860 date explains the resemblance to the steamer.  It's unlikely the Winans had worked up many details of the new yacht that early.
106  Papers on Naval Architecture, etc No. XII - Vol. IV - A "Launches" section in this reprint records the launch of the Walter S Winans in Havre on 20 Nov 1865.
108  Marine Engineer and Naval Architect Vol. 19, p. 364, 1 Jan 1898. A paragraph entitled “The Roller Boat” includes a reference to an advertisement for the sale of the cigar ships in Southampton. It laments the loss of “what have been very prominent objects in the port for almost a generation”.
109  English Mechanic and World of Science No. 294 11 Nov 1870, p.190. An article near the top of the first column, signed P. France, mentions modifications to the boilers of the “Rose” Winans because she has not been able to maintain speed for any length of time. He mentions the untimely death by drowning of the chief engineer, Mr. Holliday.
110  Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects   Vol. XVI 1875 - P. 232. In a critique of the Bessemer Steamship, Captain R. A. E. SCOTT, R.N., relates his positive experience on a cigar ship cruise in “a nasty sea”. This was likely the Walter S. Winans, since he calls it “a very small vessel”.
111  Hunt's Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review No. III, March 1860, vol. 42, p. 395. An article entitled “The 'Cigar' Steamship” provides a description that includes details not found in other articles.
112  Symons's Monthly Meteorological Magazine Vol. CLII Sep 1878 - P.118  A report of a waterspout in Southampton mentions it passing close to "Mr. Wynan's 'Cigar ship' ... and those on board must have had an excellent view."
Hunt's Yachting Magazine The March 1866 issue, published in London, reports the launch of the "Rose" Winans.  The 3½-page article reveals the creative public speculation about exactly what was under construction during the two years prior to the launch and attendant publicity.  The major part of the article contains the same details found in other articles of the time but includes speculation on performance by an experienced yachtsman. 
The Saturday Reader
March to September 1866
Volume II no. 44, July 7, 1866 reprints the tour portion of the Every Saturday 23 June article94.
Engineering Facts and Figures for 1866 This volume, published by A. Fullerton and Co in 1867, includes a word-for-word extract from The Engineer 23 Feb article42.


Publication industrielle des machines Vol. 17 Text, 1867, pp.146.  An article on the "cigar-ship", in French, provides a detailed description of the Walter S. Winans and a more detailed account of its cross-channel voyage than in other sources.  The Google Books volume, linked at right, contains text only.  Each volume in this series includes a part 1 with text and part 2 with plates of figures.  The article includes a translation of some of material from The Engineer on cigar ship history and the Ross Winans.
115  Publication industrielle des machines Vol. 17 Plates, 1867, Plate 11.  Nine detailed figures depict the Walter S. Winans as documented by the builder Nillus & Sons

Maryland Historical Society The H. Furlong Baldwin Library Winans papers collection (MS 916)
Box 2 V.38 Thomas Winans, Correspondence Sent, 1859-1866
Box 4 Vol. 90 Tom Winans to Mr. Semmes, November 25, 1924, Cigar boat construction in the past
Box 22 Vol. 59 William Lewis Winans Letter Book, copies to Thomas Winans, 1858-1862
Box 24 Vol. 79
Thomas and William L. Winans Steering Experiments with Yacht Walter S. Winans, 1877-1878
Box 24 Vol. 80
Thomas and William L. Winans Sea Experiments with Yacht Walter S. Winans, 1877-1878
Box 24 Vol. 81
Thomas and William L. Winans Experiments at Measured Mile with Yacht Walter S. Winans, 1877-1878
122  Leeds Mercury Issue 8964 Saturday 5th January 1867 - Halliday - Winser Obituary 
123  Sacramento Daily Union Vol. 46, n. 7080, 12 Dec 1873, p. 1 reports a contribution to the Baltimore American by C.C. Fulton who saw the Ross Winans steaming toward Southampton from the "British Channel".  The report includes interesting information about the ship's configuration and about the apparent sensitivity to publicity about performance. (The article is at the bottom of the 4th column.)

[The following six citations are from Noskov, "The End of the Winans Brothers' Railroad Enterprise in Russia", item 124 in Secondary Sources above]

127  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
"S. Peterburg, 28 Sentiabria", Morska Sbornik 10 (1861), Sovr. Obozr.: 222. 
[Mentions the use of a screw instead of the 1858 Steamer wheel]
128  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
"S. Peterburg, 26 Oktiabria", Morska Sbornik 11 (1861), Sovr. Obozr.: 69. 
129  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
"S. Peterburg, 15 Noiabria", Morska Sbornik 12 (1861), Sovr. Obozr.: 167.
130  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
"Otchet predsedatelia Morskogo Uchenogo Komiteta kontr-admirala Zelenogo za 1861 god", Morska Sbornik 4 (1862), Ofits. Otd.: 155.
131  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
"Otchet o deistviiakh korablestroitek'nogo teknicheskogo komiiteta v 1862", Morska Sbornik 8 (1863), Ofits. Otd.: 246.
(This item is repeated in 133)
132  RGAVMF (Russian State 
Archives of the Navy)
F.M. Novosel'skii to S.A. Grieg, 15 May 1863, RGAVMF (Russian State Archives of the Navy), f.410, op.2, no 2628, 1. 2.

[ End Noskov]

133  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
(Maritime Journal)
"Opyty nad lodkoiu Vainansa v vide sigary,"  LXVII (Oct. 1863), No. 8, of. p. 246; 
"Sudno sigara," LXXX (Sept. 1865), No. 9, zm. khr., pp. 19-21; 
"Sudno sigary, postvoennoe po chertzham g. Vainansa," LXXXIII (Mar. 1866), No. 3, zm. khr. pp. 22-26.
(Some PDFs available at MagzDB in Russian)
134  Fox's Mission to Russia in 1866 J.F. Loubat, edited by John  D. Champlin (New York: Appleton and Co., 1874), pp. 76-85.
135  Morskoi sbornik
(Морской сборник)
"Probnoe plavanie parokhoda sigary Vil'iama Vainansa v Kronshtadte", LVI (Dec. 1861), No. 12, s. ob. p. 167.
136  Maryland Historical Society The H. Furlong Baldwin Library Winans papers collection (MS 916)
William Winans, Dec 13, 1861, Brighton: Letter to Thomas Winans, Box 7 [Kipp citation]

L'Année scientifique et industrielle

1866 (dixième année) P.178 - Includes a short article by Louis Figuier on "Le vaisseau-cigare".
137   Bury and Norwich Post 29 May 1866
138   Patent 1121 to George Beadon English Patents of Inventions, Specifications 1852 (1853), 1090 - 1150
The Popular Science Review Vol. IV - 1865.  This volume of the quarterly review included a lengthy article, "Extraordinary Ships" by S.J .Mackie, with 18 figures and a plate of the "Cigar-ship" and the "Connector-ship".  The plate image is an early Ross Winans conception with slanted stacks and masts, similar to the 1865 Harper's Weekly23 and Artizon51 images.  The body of the article and the other figures describe and illustrate the special technical benefits of both kinds of "extraordinary" designs.  
American Artisan Vol. II, Number 8, June 27, 1866, pp.116-117 "A Visit to Winans's 'Cigar Ship'" - Descriptions of the ship, the engine and boiler rooms and details of other "novelties".
National Maritime Museum, London The museum has a very nice, if amusingly inaccurate, artist's impression, colored print of the Ross Winans at sea. (See it on my Ross Winans page, linked above.)
Maryland Historical Society The Society's Hambleton Collection catalog item H181 is another copy of this print.  This print was published and printed by Gustav. W. Seitz of Wandsbeck , Germany.  The image is identical but the coloring is slightly different, especially in the flags, raising the possibility that there was more than one edition or that the image was hand-colored. 
Hull Museum
Kingston-upon-Hull, UK
The museum collection includes M1.631.76, another copy of this print.  See an image at the link at right.

Maryland Historical Society The Society also has two cigar ship models.  M.1956.11.1 is a simple, unadorned large wooden spindle hull model. 1926.34.2 is a smaller model that appears to be the Baltimore steamer looking very much as in the stereograph photo81
Winans marine patents:
The Winans appear to have patented every innovation they attempted as they experimented with the cigar ships.  The patents therefore provide a detailed description of many details of their design.  Nearly all the patents below refer to Patent 21917 and describe improvements, providing a history of technical development.  Many of Guthrie's detailed drawings1 are clearly copied from patents.  The illustrations in the 9 Mar edition of the Engineer44 are enhanced line-for-line copies of several of the 1866 patents.
     The list below is certainly incomplete.  The Engineer article44 includes illustrations of a boiler and the newspaper sailboat drawing59 includes an odd mast not described in either sailboat patent.  

US Patents

All patents available on the US Patent Office web site** (Click a USPTO graphic below to view a patent image)
and via Google patent search***  (Click a Google graphic below to view a PDF patent image) 

19888 1858 - Piston for Steam Engines (this early patent provides some details of the Ross Winans engine)
21917 1858 - Hull of Steam Vessels (describes the steamer hull)
RE 651 1859 - Improvement in Hulls of Steam Vessels (This re-issue extends Patent 21917)
21918 1858 - Improvement in Steam Vessels (describes the steamer propeller and propeller shroud mechanics)
21919 1858 - Improvement in Construction of Ocean Steamers (applies the steamer propeller to conventional hulls)  
21920 1858 - Connection of Steam-Engines with Propellers of Steam Vessels (describes the steamer power train)
31276 1861 - Anchor Well and Anchor (matches Guthrie's description1 of the Ross Winans anchors)
31346 1861 - Improved Packing for Stuffing Boxes (related to the patent 31846)
31845 1861 - Steering Apparatus for Navigable Vessels (describes the mechanism for operating fore and aft rudders in tandem)
31846 1861 - Stuffing Box (a general patent illustrated for a steam engine piston, but mentioned as applicable to marine propeller shafts) 
46516 1865 - Improvement in operating ordnance on gun-boats, &c. (This patent is referenced in William Louis Winans' gunboat proposals)
55516 1866 - Improvement in Steam Engines (patents the steam engine-propeller shaft linkage arrangement used in the Ross Winans.)
57834 1866 - Improved Apparatus for Trimming Ships (patents the Ross Winans' donkey-engine-driven counterweight described in the Engineer44)
57835 1866 - Improved Couplings for Propeller-shafts of Ships (similar to the Ross Winans' coupling mentioned in the Engineer44)
57836 1866 - Improved Propellers for Spindle-shaped Ships (places a radial propeller at each end) 
58038 1866 - Improvement in Steam-Generators (a superheater applied to a Ross Winans-like boiler) 
58743 1866 - Improved Application of Rudders to Spindle-Shaped Hulls (describes single and dual propellers more than rudders) 
58744 1866 - Improved Propeller (places a large propeller at either or both ends) 
83430 1868 - Improvement in Condensers (describes a steam boiler condenser that keeps contaminants from valves)
144243 1873 - Improvement in Construction of Steam Vessels (modifies the bottom of the hull for less draft)
161372 1875 - Improvement in the Construction of Spindle-Shaped Vessels (adds superstructure as on the Ross Winans and Russian boats)
180690 1876 - Improvement in Construction of Sail-Boats, &c. (A variation on Patent 180691)
180691 1876 - Improvement in Construction of Sailing-Vessels (This sail boat closely resembles the Winans sailboat Sokoloff4, 59)
504120 1893 - Spindle-Shaped Ocean-Steamer (This patent on very large cigar boats includes William L. Winans' ideas on the best ratio of hull diameter to length)

Thanks to Nancy Adams and John Lamb for identifying some of the patents.

*You will need a program like Adobe's free reader to view PDF files.  
**Patent Full-Text and Full-Page Image Databases (opens in new window).  You will need a browser plug-in to view the patent TIF-format  images.  See the patent office image help page.

*** The Google Patent Search provides the patent images in PDF form.  (The character recognition sometimes provides an amusingly incorrect patent title.)

Other Patents - As of October 2021, I've identified the following British 
(and Canadian) patents:

At least three of these patents are available on the 
European Patent Office esp@cnet. 

GB18581386 1858 - A new and useful improvement in the form of the Hull of Steam Vessels   (This is the British version of US21917.)
GB18581387 1858 - Steam Vessel  (A new and improved steam vessel
GB18581388 1858 - Ocean Steamer  (Improvement to ocean steam vessels
GB18581389 1858 - A new and useful improvement in the mode of combining the engines and propeller shafts of steam vessels 
GB1862138 1862 - Improvements in the manner of mounting and apparatus for maneuvering cannon or ordnance on ships or vessels of war and floating batteries
GB1862841 1862 - A new and improved mode of mounting and apparatus for maneuvering ordnance in land fortifications
GB18631555 1863 - Improvement in the Construction of Spindle-Shaped (Steam) Vessels   (This is the British version of US161372.)
GB18631556 1863 - Improvements in couplings for propelling shafts of ships or vessels  (This could be the British version of US57835.)
GB18631557 1863 - Improvements in adapting propellers for propelling ships or vessels for ocean navigation
GB18631558 1863 - Improvements in adapting propellers for propelling ships or vessels for ocean navigation
GB18631570 1863 - Improvements in adapting propellers for propelling ships or vessels
GB18631571 1863 - Improvements in adapting propellers for propelling ocean steam vessels
GB18631572 1863 - Improvements in the construction or arrangement of the working parts of engines for actuating the propelling shafts of steam vessels  
(This could be the British version of US55516.)
GB18631582 1863 - Improvements in steam-boilers
GB18631583 1863 - Improvements in lessening the friction of the rubbing surfaces of slide valves of engines, and of the journals of shafts
GB18631484 1863 - Improvements in the arrangement of apparatus for superheating steam in steam-boilers
GB18633100 1863 - Improvements in adapting screw propellers for propelling ships or vessels for ocean navigation
GB18633231 1863 - Improved means of an apparatus for trimming ships or vessels  (This must be the British version of US57834.)
GB18731651 1873 - Steam Vessels
GB189316340 1893 - Improvement in Spindle-shaped Ocean Steamers  (This is the British version of US504120.)
CA44575 1893 - Spindle-shaped Ocean Steamers  (Canadian version of GB189316340)
GB189412744 1895 - Improvements in Yachts  - Walter Scott Winans

The 1867 article in Publication industrielle des machines, Vol 17 states that the Winans filed numerous patents in France for the ships and ship systems and for their improvement between 1858 and 1863.  
As of October 2021, I've identified these French patents:

Images* were not yet available in October 2021, 
but these patents are found (in French) on  
Brevets au 19e siècle 
Recherche Rapide and type Winans in the text box - 
this must be done to activate the individual links below) 

1BB37144 1858 - Perfectionnements apportés dans la forme des coques de navires à vapeur  (Probably the French version of US21917) **
1BB37145 1858 - Construction perfectionnée des navires à vapeur
1BB37146 1858 - Perfectionnements apportés dans les vaisseaux transatlantiques  (Probably equivalent to US21919)
1BB37147 1858 - Perfectionnements dans le mode de combiner les machines et arbres propulseurs des navires à vapeur  (Probably equivalent to US21920)
1BB46671 1860 - Perfectionnements dans la construction des bateaux et embarcations de toutes dimensions, water-craft
1BB46672 1860 - Perfectionnements dans les moyens d'empêcher l'élévation de l'eau dans les chaudières à vapeur
1BB46673 1860 - Perfectionnements dans les supports de butées des arbres de propulsion et autres emplois  
1BB46674 1860 - Perfectionnements dans les stuffing-boxes et dans leur garniture pour le passage des tiges de pistons des machines à vapeur et pour autres emplois  (Probably equivalent to US31846)
1BB52932 1862 - Perfectionnements apportés à la manière de monter et de faire manoeuvrer les pièces d'artillerie des navires de guerre ou autres et des batteries flottantes  (Equivalent to US46516)
1BB61011 1862 - Perfectionnements apportés dans la construction des navires  (Probably equivalent to US144243)
1BB61012 1863 - Perfectionnements apportés aux accouplements des arbres de couche des navires à vapeur  
1BB61013 1863 - Perfectionnements apportés à l'application des propulseurs pour navires ou vaisseaux océaniques
1BB61014 1863 - Perfectionnements apportés à la disposition des hélices servant à la propulsion des navires et vaisseaux sur mer
1BB61015 1863 - Perfectionnements apportés à la construction et à la disposition des machines à vapeur qui actionnent les arbres propulseurs pour bateaux, etc.
1BB61016 1863 - Perfectionnements apportés aux chaudières à vapeur
1BB61017 1863 - Perfectionnements dans la disposition des appareils pour surchauffer la vapeur, dans les chaudières à vapeur
1BB62447 1864 - Perfectionnements dans l'application des propulseurs aux navires pour la navigation océanique
1BB63799 1864 - Moyens perfectionnés et appareil pour équilibrer les navires
1BB73000 1866 - Perfectionnements apportés dans les machines et chaudières à vapeur

*When images are available, they will be accessible via a camera icon "Voir le dossier" on the button bar or in the search list.
**You need to perform the search for Winans described above to activate these individual links.



This page and its contents, except as noted,  © Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2021 
Michael & Karen Crisafulli
Updated 19 Oct 21